The focus of the 2005 Arctic Forum was: "Arctic Climate Change and Public Literacy: What's at Stake?"

Presentations from a diverse range of perspectives addressed topics such as:

  • Current science on arctic climate change and future scenarios
  • Public perception of arctic climate change
  • Communication strategies and their effectiveness
  • The role of the research community in public literacy

The Forum was co-chaired by Dr. Stephanie Pfirman of the Department of Environmental Science at Barnard College and Dr. Bruce Forbes of the Arctic Centre at the University of Lapland.


The annual banquet was replaced by a special reception featuring a Greenlandic exhibition, posters on arctic research, buffet, and a hosted bar. The exhibition included a talk by the Honorable Henriette Rasmussen, Greenland Minister for Culture, Education, Research, and Church, and a special presentation by the Aavaat Choir. The Aavaat Choir sings both traditional and modern Greenlandic music and performed in their national costume.

Celebrating Greenland

A two-day event celebrating Greenland followed the 17th Annual Meeting on 20-22 May 2005 at the Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Museum, Washington, DC. This event was organized by the Directorate of Culture, Education, Research and Church, Nuuk, Greenland; The Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian; and The Royal Danish Embassy, Washington, D.C.

2005 Arctic Forum Volume

The volume of abstracts from the 2005 Arctic Forum are available below in PDF format.

PDF iconDownload (PDF - 2.1 MB)

List of Abstracts

Reporting Climate Change - The Front Line

Richard Black1
1Environment Correspondent, British Broadcasting Company (BBC), UK, richard.black [at] bbc.co.uk

For scientists working with climate and global change, the media can be a source of immense frustration. It does not always put 'the message' across as scientists would want; reporting is frequently perceived as unbalanced; key details are often missed. Yet without the media, how can the scientific case be made to the public - which may then induce the public to put pressure on political leaders? From more than a decade of reporting climate change, I will argue - as point of fact rather than principle - that most of the media as presently constituted does not have a duty to inform the public about such issues. I will also argue that meaningful political action can and does take place without public support.

Context & Climate Change: Lessons from Barrow, Alaska

Ronald D. Brunner1
1Center for Public Policy Research, University of Colorado, Campus Box 333, Boulder, CO, 80309-0333, USA, Phone 303-492-2955, Fax 303-492-0978, brunnerr [at] spot.colorado.edu

For several years my colleagues and I have worked with people in Barrow, Alaska to expand the range of informed choices for the community in adapting to climate change and variability. Our approach has been intensive: centered on one community; comprehensive in consideration of many factors affecting its vulnerability to coastal erosion and flooding; and integrative in the focus on a series of damaging storms in which these factors interact. The results of this approach suggest reconsideration of the interconnected roles of science, policy, and decision-making structures.

First, profound uncertainties are inherent in unique interactions among the many natural and human factors affecting Barrow's vulnerability. Science cannot significantly reduce these uncertainties through extensive approaches, but intensive approaches can reconstruct and update local trends, clarify the underlying dynamics, and harvest experience for policy purposes. Second, sound policies to reduce Barrow's vulnerability must incorporate these profound uncertainties and the multiple values of the community. Minimizing vulnerability to climate change is only one of the community's interests, and it must compete with other interests for limited time, attention, funds and other resources. Third, the community itself is in the best position to understand its own context, to decide on sound policies, and to take responsibility for those decisions. In short, context matters in adapting to climate change and variability.

In our experience, effective communications with the community and its leaders depend not only on sustained interactions but also on research focused on their local experience and concerns. Motivations to continue are reinforced by partial research results of value to the community and new damaging storms.

Toward a Cabled Observatory at Barrow, Alaska

Dale N. Chayes1, Bernard Coakley2, Andrey Proshutinsky3, Thomas Weingartner4
1Instrument Lab, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 West, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA, Phone 845-365-8434, dale [at] ldeo.columbia.edu
2Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA, Phone 907-474-5385, Fax 907-474-5163, Bernard.Coakley [at] gi.alaska.edu
3Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA, USA, Phone 508-289-2796, Fax 508-457-2181, aproshutinsky [at] whoi.edu
4Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 757220, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA, Phone 907-474-7993, Fax 907-474-7204, weingart [at] ims.uaf.edu

The scientific potential of a cabled seafloor observatory in the Arctic was explored by participants of an NSF-funded open workshop "Science and Education Objectives for a Seafloor Cabled Observatory on the Beaufort Shelf, Alaska" held in Barrow, Alaska, 7-8 February, 2005. Thirty-two people representing academia, government, private industry and citizens of Barrow participated. Discussions of what permanently installed seafloor instrumentation could accomplish for science and for Barrow ranged widely across the broad spectrum of disciplines including chemical, biological and physical oceanography, geology and geophysics, and marine mammal and ice canopy studies. The key questions and problems addressed included: How to design a cabled observatory for Arctic studies? Where and how it should operate? What are the current engineering and science constraints for this facility in the Arctic? What are the science and education objectives for such project?

A workshop report has been submitted for publication in EOS. We are assembling a proposal to address the long lead-time issues including permitting and detailed survey work for cable routes and shore landing.

A technical working group will meet late this year in Monterey to develop a technical approach including a conceptual design and implementation plan that address the science.

Solid precipitation reconstruction using snow depth measurements and a land surface hydrology model

Jessie Cherry1, Bruno Tremblay2, Stephen Dery3, Marc Stieglitz4
1Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University/Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Ocean 206, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA, Phone 845-365-8327, Fax 845-365-8157, jcherry [at] ldeo.columbia.edu
2Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, NY, USA, tremblay [at] ldeo.columbia.edu
3Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, NJ, USA, sdery [at] princeton.edu
4Civil and Environmental Engineering/Earth and Environmental , Georgia Institute of Technology, GA, USA, marc.stieglitz [at] ce.gatech.edu

The amount and distribution of snowfall in the Arctic has significant effects on global climate. However, measurements of snowfall with gauges are strongly biased. A new method is described for reconstructing snowfall from observed snow depth records, meteorological observations, and running the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project Catchment Land Surface Model (NSIPP CLSM) in an inverse mode. This method is developed and tested with observations from Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. Results show snowfall can be accurately reconstructed based on how much snow must have fallen to produce the observed snow depth. Root mean square error of reconstructed solid precipitation is reduced by 30%, and mean snowfall increased, relative to that from a corrected gauge for 11 snow seasons. The intended application of this method is the pan-Arctic land mass, where estimates of snowfall are highly uncertain, but where more than 60 years of historical snow depth and air temperature records exist.

Impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Scandinavian hydropower production and energy markets

Jessie Cherry1, Heidi Cullen2, Martin Visbeck3
1Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University/LDEO, Ocean 206, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA, Phone 845-365-8327, Fax 845-365-8157, jcherry [at] ldeo.columbia.edu
2The Weather Channel, Atlanta, GA, USA
3Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, IFM-GEOMAR, Gebäude Westufer, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, Kiel, 24105, Germany, Phone +49-0-431-600-4, Fax +49-0-431-600-4, mvisbeck [at] ifm-geomar.de

Dramatic swings in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the 1990s motivated the authors to build a statistical model of NAO impacts on hydropower production and energy markets in Scandinavia. Variation in the NAO index is shown to explain 55% of the variance of streamflow in Norway and up to 30% of the variance in Norway's hydropower output. It is also possible to identify the influence of NAO anomalies on electricity consumption and prices. Government liberalization allowed a financial market to grow around the international trading of electricity, which in Norway is produced almost entirely from hydropower. The model offers a possible tool for predicting the effects of future NAO movements on hydropower production and energy prices in Scandinavia. The potential influence of skillful climate prediction is discussed.

Arctic Science Education: Partnerships Build Bridges Across the Learning Continuum

Renee D. Crain1
1Office of Polar Programs, Arctic Sciences Section, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA, 22230, USA, Phone 703-292-8029, Fax 703-292-9082, rcrain [at] nsf.gov

The Arctic Sciences Section at the National Science Foundation supports the integration of scientific research with science education at all levels. Support from the Arctic Research and Education program has enabled arctic researchers to involve K-12 students, teachers, journalists, arctic residents and the broader public in their research. Researchers, including graduate-level students, convey the latest theories and questions in arctic science in an active, inquiry-based way that engages learners. Researchers impart to their audiences the importance of the polar regions to the global system, act as role models for young people seeking career opportunities and provide invigorating collegial interactions for teachers and other professional. This poster describes some of the projects supported by the Arctic Sciences Section to involve students and the public in arctic research, with an emphasis on including and providing experiences for arctic residents. The results have provided thousands of students and many others with unique and informative experiences in arctic science. With support from the Arctic Sciences Section, researchers are finding new avenues to ensure the broader impacts of their research while they gain new perspectives about science teaching and learning through these enriching activities.

Constructing Partnerships with Arctic Research to further Education, Outreach and Scientific Literacy

Renee D. Crain1
1Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA, 22230, USA, Phone 703-292-4482, rcrain [at] nsf.gov

Current scientific research is a gateway to engage people in both the process of science and the essential body of information that defines scientific literacy. Arctic research provides an interesting context for studying scientific basic concepts for both audiences in and outside of the Arctic. Education and outreach partnerships with arctic researchers convey the relevance of the Arctic to the global system and illustrate the process of science as an inquiry-based human endeavor. Developing the next generation of scientists and engineers, increasing the diversity of individuals in science and engineering to be representative of the population, and providing the public and policy makers with current information are important objectives of NSF. The proposal review criterion known as Broader Impacts ensures NSF-funded projects have impacts beyond the team proposing the work. The broader impacts stipulation in combination cutting-edge research sponsored by NSF in science and engineering as well as research in learning and teaching are the backdrop for a number of successful partnerships of arctic researchers with education and outreach. This talk describes examples and outcomes of some of these projects and opportunities for arctic researchers to continue to develop successful partnerships during the International Polar Year and beyond.

Investigating the Economic and Environmental Resilience of Viliui Sakha Villages: Building Capacity, Assessing Sustainability, Gaining Knowledge

Susan A. Crate1
1Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MS 5F2, Fairfax, VA, 22031, USA, Phone 703-993-1517, Fax 703-993-1066, scrate1 [at] gmu.edu

This research project investigates the local resilience of rural post-Soviet agropastoralist native communities of northeastern Siberia, Russia, in the face of economic and environmental change. The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving native specialists and field assistants, the active participation of village inhabitants, and the in-country research community and funded by the NSF Office of Polar Programs. The project is founded on the PI's fifteen years of ongoing research and work with Viliui Sakha communities and her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. The research questions are: How do local populations define "sustainability" based on community goals? How can household and community-level adaptation to economic and environmental change be assessed based on a locally determined definition of sustainability? How can elder knowledge be used to inform locally determined definitions of sustainability and thereby support contemporary household and community-level adaptation? To these ends the project has three interdependent research areas: 1) "Building Capacity" to work with inhabitants to develop local definitions of sustainability and to define appropriate measures to assess sustainability on a household and community level, 2) "Assessing Sustainability" to gather and analyze both qualitative and quantitative research data based on those measures, and 3) "Gaining Knowledge" to investigate what aspects of village elder knowledge inform the locally-produced model of sustainability.

Arctic Sea Ice Characteristics and Atmospheric/Oceanic Forcing in 20th Century IPCC Coupled Model Simulations

Richard I Cullather1, Irina V Gorodetskaya2, Bruno Tremblay3, Robert Newton4
1Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA, Phone (845) 365-8769, Fax (845) 365-8736, cullat [at] ldeo.columbia.edu
2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA
3Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA
4Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA

Realistic simulations of the present Arctic climate are critical for the projection of future climate scenarios. Such predictions have received increased attention in light of the present downward trends in Arctic sea ice extent over the satellite observational era. This poster presents an analysis of twentieth century simulations of Arctic sea ice concentration and thickness from six coupled models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report. The sea ice distributions are then related to oceanic forcing and to terms of the surface energy balance including radiative, sensible and latent heat fluxes. These terms are compared to available observations with particular focus on SHEBA data. The emphasis of this study is to attribute differences between the various models and observation with respect to the spatial distribution, the annual cycle, and interannual variability.

Survey at 78 Degrees: Archaeological Investigations in Inglefield Land, Northwest Greenland

John Darwent1, Christyann Darwent2, Genevieve LeMoine3
1Anthropology, University of California, Davis, USA
2Anthropology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
3The Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum and Arctic Studies Center, Bowdoin College, 9500 College Station, Brunswick, ME, 04011-8495, USA, Phone 207-725-3304, glemoine [at] bowdoin.edu

The Inglefield Land archaeology project (ILAP) is a long-term archaeological research project led by Christyann Darwent of the University of California, Davis, and Genevieve LeMoine of The Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum, Bowdoin College, collaborating with Hans Lange, of the Greenland National Museum and Archives, and David Qaavigaq, of the Thule Museum in Qaanaaq.

Located at the northern end of the North Water polynya, Inglefield Land has been an attractive place for maritime hunters to live for millennia. Its prehistoric role as the 'gateway to Greenland' and its historic role as a base for Euro-American exploration parties, as well as the destination of the one of the few documented Inuit long-distance migrations, means it is well-suited for studying the complex interactions of cultures in a changing environment.
Here we describe the results of the first year's fieldwork at two locations along the coast of Inglefield land, Force Bay and Marshall Bay. In this early stage of research our work focused on systematic archaeological survey, documenting the rich archaeological resources of this region.

Adolphus Greeley: Raising Arctic Consciousness

Gino Del Guercio1
1Boston Science Communications, Inc., 321 Center Street, S. Easton, MA, 02375, USA, Phone 508-238-8677, ginodelg [at] mac.com

Gino Del Guercio is a documentary filmmaker specializing in science, medicine and technology. He began his career in television as a producer for WGBH in Boston, and for the past 18 years has worked on projects for WGBH, Thirteen/WNET, OPB, KTCA, Discovery Channel and A&E. He was series co-producer and producer of two programs for the recent Thirteen/WNET series Red Gold: The Epic Story of Blood. In 2000, he produced "Transistorized!" which won Science Documentary of the Year from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is currently directing a 90-minute historical documentary titled "In Search of Greeley," about the worst arctic disaster in American history, and a two-hour special for PBS with host Jane Pauley and MacNeil/Lehrer Productions about the science of learning.

When the Arctic Becomes Subarctic: Seabirds Respond to Three Decades of Climate Change

George J. Divoky1
1Institute of Arctic Biolgy, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA, Phone 206-365-6009, fngjd [at] uaf.edu

Changes in the distribution and abundance of higher trophic level species can provide compelling evidence of climate change that is easily understood by the public. While seabirds are excellent monitors of marine ecosystems at all latitudes, their affinity or avoidance of sea ice makes them even more sensitive to climate related changes in high latitude oceans. The seabird colony on Cooper Island, Alaska, 25 miles east of Point Barrow, has been studied annually from 1975-2004, a period of rapid climate change in the Western Arctic. Monitoring of the diversity, abundance and breeding success of the island's seabirds provides one of the few examples of a biotic response to the well-documented atmospheric and oceanographic changes occurring in the region. The Black Guillemot, an arctic seabird dependent on ice-associated prey, prospered in the 1970s and 1980s but experienced reduced breeding success and a declining population after 1989, when a shift in the Arctic Oscillation resulted in earlier and greater retreat of the summer pack ice. Concurrently, the Horned Puffin, a subarctic seabird that feeds primarily on schooling fish, underwent a northward expansion, first breeding on the island and northern Alaska in 1986 and increasing throughout the 1990s. The 2003 and 2004 field seasons saw unprecedented breeding failure for Black Guillemots and record numbers of Horned Puffins on the island. This relatively rapid switch in the nearshore marine ecosystem has implications for a number of arctic and subarctic marine species, some of which are important in the subsistence harvest of the region's indigenous people.

More and updated information is available at http://www.cooperisland.org.

Adventure Learning: Bringing the Arctic and Climate Change to K-12 Classrooms, Public and Policy Makers Worldwide

Aaron H. Doering1, Paul L. Pregont2, Mille Porsild3
1Curriculum & Instruction, College of Education and Human Dev, University of Minnesota, 130 D Peik Hall, 159 Pillsbury Dr SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA, Phone 612-625-1073, Fax 612-624-8277, adoering [at] umn.edu
2AK, USA, Phone 269-426-4576, ppregont [at] polarhusky.com
3AK, USA, mporsild [at] polarhusky.com

Adventure learning provides learners with opportunities to explore real-world issues through authentic learning experiences within collaborative online learning environments (Doering, 2005).

The adventure learning program uses the allure of an Arctic dogsled expedition, to engage learners as they experience scientific research firsthand. Anchored in comprehensive, inquiry-based K-12 curricula, each program reflects an Arctic locale and its associated culture. A multimedia online learning environment is developed concomitant to deliver live field-updates and scientific and cultural findings synched real-time to the curriculum. Field research includes collection of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and hydro-meteorological data with the Office of Polar Programs at National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

The free adventure learning program Arctic Transect 2004, reached more than three million learners in fifty states across the nation and internationally. Student academic motivation significantly increased to study global climate change, the Arctic, and the Inuit culture when using the adventure learning program.

Fifty million media impressions and team members speaking to U.S. Senators at Capitol Hill as well as Members of the House of Parliament (UK) made the program extend even far beyond the classroom walls.

Recent research data on adventure learning for environmental education, copies of the K-12 curriculum, showcasing of the online learning environment, and a multimedia overview of Arctic Transect 2004 will be presented. Finally, an introduction to Go North!, a five-year project (2006 – 2010) to circumnavigate the Arctic in five annual programs will be showcased.

Climate Change in the Arctic and Public Health

Paul R. Epstein1
1Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Landmark Center, 401 Park Drive, Second Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, USA, Phone 617-384-8586, Fax 617-384-8585, paul_epstein [at] hms.harvard.edu

Just as we underestimated the rate at which climate would change, we have underestimated the biological responses to those changes.

Temperature constrains the range of microbes and vectors while weather affects the hosts, and timing and intensity of disease outbreaks. Ticks in Sweden are trekking north as winters warm, and models project a similar shift in the U.S. and Canada. West Nile virus is spreading in the Americas and the bird-biting Culex pipiens mosquitoes survive in warm winters and thrive in shallow pools of foul water that remains in drains during droughts. Over the hot, dry summer of 2002 (absent snowpack in the Rockies) WNV raced across the nation, stopped in 44 states, reached California and five Canadian provinces; infecting 230 species of animals, including 37 species of birds along the way. Warming will provide the conditions allowing West Nile to potentially move into Alaska.

Global warming is also retarding repair of the 'ozone shield,' meaning higher levels of UV radiation for years to come. On the other hand, tailpipe emissions combine rapidly in the heat to form ground-level ozone or photochemical smog – a cause of asthma and other respiratory ills.

The drought from 1998 to 2004 – 'the worst in 500 years'-- weakened trees by drying the resin that normally drowns beetles as they bore through bark, while warming allowed beetles to overwinter, expand into higher latitudes and altitudes, and sneak in an extra generation each year. Alaskan forests -- essential habitat – are threatened by numerous infestations, including spruce bark beetles, spruce budworms and leaf miners. Terrestrial and marine food webs are being disrupted. Alaskan Inuits also report an increase in accidents walking on thin ice, and increasing rates of depression and alcoholism, as thawing permafrost undermines their homes and villages.

We may also have underestimated the benefits of ending our addiction to fossil fuels. Given the proper incentives, energy efficiency, hybrid technologies, distributed generation with tidal, solar, fuel cells, wind and geothermal sources, can constitute the engine of growth for 21st Century; a clean one that can propel us into a healthier future.

Arctic Indigenous Peoples Facing Climate Change – A Saami Perspective

Rune Fjellheim1
1Jaruma AS, Krájáohka, Norway, rune.fjellheim [at] jaruma.no

The Arctic is warming at an alarming rate. The Saami people as one of many Arctic Peoples has experienced the change first hand, and has joined in with Akademia to document the changes. In the Arctic Council cooperation where Indigenous Peoples work side by side with the 8 Arctic States, we have found a sound atmosphere for collaboration and exchange of knowledge.

The ACIA is an example of science and traditional knowledge working together to identify causes, effects and possible implications of the complex topic of climate change.
The presentation will touch on the following topics:
  • Brief overview of the Saami experience
  • Short and long term challenges
  • Dealing with the increased access to the Arctic as a consequence of a warmer climate – a Saami and indigenous view.
The Arctic is warming, and poses a gigantic threat to people, animals and our precious ecosystems. And it is alarming that some governments and many multinational enterprises seem to be most impressed by the fact that a warmer Arctic may become a more accessible Arctic. They are seemingly unconcerned about solving the single largest challenge facing human kind – runaway warming of our plane.

The fact is that as long as our rights are not recognized, the access and opportunities are for others to exploit. We are just left with the challenges and problems. That is clearly unacceptable.

Nobody knows the exact effects of the current changes, and the peoples and residents of the Arctic simply have to adapt. Our peoples, with a history in the Arctic of many millennia, have experienced and survived climate changes before. The difference this time is that we now know who caused it. We can and will adapt, but we will also address the causes, and do what we can to prevent our lands from being destroyed in the process.

The Stress and Strain-Rate Kinematics of Sea Ice at 1, 15, and 200 km

Cathleen A Geiger1, Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge2, Bruce Elder3, Keran J Claffey4
1Snow and Ice Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA, Phone 603-646-4851, Fax 603-646-4644, cathleen.a.geiger [at] erdc.usace.army.mil
2Snow and Ice Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA, Phone 603-646-4266, Fax 603-646-4644, jacqueline.a.richter-menge [at] erdc.usace.army.mil
3Snow and Ice Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA
4Snow and Ice Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA, keran.j.claffey [at] erdc.usace.army.mil

A synopsis of stress, drift, and strain-rate from three major field experiments in the Beaufort Sea within the last decade is available at website http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/sid/SeaIceDynamics/index.htm. The Sea Ice Mechanics Initiative (SIMI – 1992/1993), the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA – 1997/1998) and Beaufort 2001/2002 include three kinematic studies from the Beaufort Sea at scales of 1, 15, and 200 km, respectively. The data serve as a wonderful resource for improving and validating sea-ice and climate models, with instructive documentation for students, teachers, and researchers. The data archive includes raw and cleaned versions of thermal and dynamic stress; Lagrangian drift and strain-rate; and coincident winter SAR scenes as archived at the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF); and documentation detailing the experiments, instrument calibration, and data processing. Poster illustrated examples of stress and strain-rate kinematics are used to highlight interesting differences at the three scales.

The Influence of Landscape Factors on Non-game Fish and Invertebrate Species in Southeast Alaska Lakes

Dave Gregovich1, Mark S. Wipfli2, Brian Frenette3
1School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775-7220, USA, Phone 907-474-2486, Fax 907-474-7204, dave.gregovich [at] uaf.edu
2Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, United States Geological Survey, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775-7220, USA, Phone 907-474-6654, Fax 907-474-7872, mark.wipfli [at] uaf.edu
3Sport Fish Division, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 802 3rd Street, Douglas, AK, 99824, USA, Phone 907-465-8590, Fax 907-465-2034, brian_frenette [at] fishgame.state.ak.us

Little is known about non-game fish species distributions in Southeast Alaska. Identification of important habitats for non-game fishes is lacking and is needed in order to properly manage their habitats. An assessment of the landscape-level variables that may influence non-game fish species presence is being undertaken based on existing data. Field investigations will test and further hypotheses generated from the initial data set. Analyses are being conducted on fish data from 60 lakes sampled in 1979-1981 in relation to lake elevation, size, outlet stream gradient, and riparian wetlands composition. Influential variables identified will be used as stratification factors in a region-wide study of sculpin and stickleback presence in lakes of varying gross physical characteristics. Preliminary results suggest that elevation is a major determinant of fish species presence. This research will result in a species-presence likelihood model based on lake geographic attributes that can be used by managers to assess the risk of management actions on non-game fish species and their habitats.

A Web-based System for Sharing Digital Geospatial Information in the Polar Regions

Cheryl A. Hallam1, Douglas J. Tallman2, Jerry L. Mullins3
1Geographic Research, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 521 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA, 20192, USA, Phone 703-648-4525, challam [at] usgs.gov
2Western Region, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA, Phone 650-329-4272, dtallman [at] usgs.gov
3International Activities, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 917 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA, 20192, USA, Phone 703-648-5144, jmullins [at] usgs.gov

The sharing of data is one of the most important forms of communication within the Polar research community. Capabilities for the display and download of data are widespread, and have provided an important service to researchers and educators; but the growth of Internet access and speed has created an even more promising form of data transfer and sharing. In the southern Polar Regions, web services are being implemented to provide access to Antarctic data through the development of map and feature services. The databases to support these services are being developed through collaboration among SCAR member nations through the Geographic Information Expert Group.

Many researchers who work in the Antarctic also work in the Arctic. We can best serve the Polar researchers if we collaborate in the development of databases and dissemination techniques. The IPY provides a unique opportunity for the two data communities to work together to develop a set of Polar data management and dissemination tools.

Analyzing North Slope River Plume Suspended Sediment with MODIS Reflectance Data

Anne Hickey1, James Maslanik2
1Environmental Studies, University of Colorado, 311 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA, anne.hickey [at] colorado.edu
2CCAR, University of Colorado, 431 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA, james.maslanik [at] colorado.edu

Rivers function to integrate terrestrial processes and climatic conditions occurring in a watershed and deliver the product of these processes and conditions to the ocean. As a result, changes in the terrestrial system may be observed in nearshore river plumes. Two vectors of environmental change currently affecting the terrestrial system on the North Slope of Alaska are warming temperatures and oil and gas development, both of which alter the tundra's thermal regime and lead to increased erosion. The advent of recent Earth Observing satellites providing daily coverage in the Arctic and the development of methods to extract suspended sediment information from visible and near-infrared (NIR) satellite reflectance data provide the ability to develop a cost-effective program to monitor suspended sediment from North Slope Rivers remotely, providing information about changes in terrestrial processes. In developing such a program, it is first necessary to know the degree to which "external" factors such as wind-induced entrainment of offshore sediments might be contributing to the satellite-observed river plume reflectances. Preliminary results comparing MODIS NIR reflectance data from Alaskan North Slope river plumes with wind and river discharge data indicate that wind resuspension of nearshore sediment significantly contributes to the NIR signal from the Sagavanirktok River plume, contributes to the Kuparuk River plume primarily at higher wind speeds, and appears to have a negligible effect on signals from the Colville River plume.

Migration in the Arctic: Subsistence, Jobs, and Well-being in Urban and Rural Communities

Lee Huskey1, Matthew Berman2, Lance Howe3, Wayne Edwards4, Robert Harcharek5, Jack Hicks6
1Department of Economics, University of Alaska Anchorage, USA
2Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA, Phone 907-786-5426, matthew.berman [at] uaa.alaska.edu
3Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK, USA
4Department of Economics, University of Alaska Anchorage, AK, USA
5Department of Public Works, North Slope Borough, Barrow, AK, USA
6Nunavut Research Institute, Nunavut Arctic College, N.T., Canada

This project studies patterns of migration of North American arctic indigenous people between rural communities, larger regional centers, and urban areas over the past several decades. It has four primary research objectives: (1) develop improved methods for analyzing migration decisions of individuals participating in mixed subsistence and cash economies; (2) apply these methods to improve understanding of Inuit migration decisions in a comparative multi-decadal study of Alaska and arctic Canada; (3) develop and make available to other researchers metadata for research and policy applications; and (4) involve arctic local governments in policy-relevant research.

We address questions about the causes and consequences of migration such as the roles of subsistence opportunities and community quality of life amenities, gender differences, and national policies on migration decisions. Comparing the Inupiat regions in Alaska to the Nunavut Territory of Canada, we ask whether Canadian Inuit are less mobile than Alaska Inupiat; and if so, to what extent can this be attributed to differences in policies in the two nations? We also investigate the long-term consequences of migration decisions: is mobility on balance improving living conditions in arctic communities, especially the poorest places, or is it draining leadership to larger settlements and exacerbating inequalities?

Working with participating organizations, we are developing research protocols for analyzing microdata collected from the late 1970s to the present, including the US Census, the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic, North Slope Borough Censuses, Statistics Canada's Aboriginal People's Survey, and other household survey data from Nunavut and Alaska. A key step in the research is the creation of a new large-sample household-level dataset from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census Long Form data, in cooperation with the US Census Center for Economic Studies.

The Dynamics of Greenlandic Language

Birgitte Jacobsen1, Mette L. Lyberth2, Lona N. Lynge3, Katti Frederiksen4, Margrethe T. Knudsen5, Marianne Hansen6
1Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik / University of Greenland, P.O.Box 279, DK-3900 Nuuk, AL, Greenland, Phone +299 32 45 66, Fax +299 32 47 97, bija [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
2Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik / University of Greenland, P.O.Box 279, DK-3900 Nuuk, AK, Greenland, Phone +299 32 45 66, Fax +299 32 47 97, mela [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
3Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik / University of Greenland, P.O.Box 279, DK-3900 Nuuk, AK, Greenland, Phone +299 32 45 66, Fax +299 32 47 97, lonl [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
4Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik / University of Greenland, P.O.Box 279, DK-3900 Nuuk, AK, Greenland, Phone +299 32 45 66, Fax +299 32 47 97, kafr [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
5Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik / University of Greenland, P.O.Box 279, DK-3900 Nuuk, AK, Greenland, Phone +299 32 45 66, Fax +299 32 47 97, makn [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
6Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik / University of Greenland, P.O.Box 279, DK-3900 Nuuk, AK, Greenland, Phone +299 32 45 66, Fax +299 32 47 97, maha [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl

During history Greenlandic has adopted many loan-words, of historical reasons most of them Danish. Today also English words are finding their way into the language, as they are in many other language societies. The language contact situation is somewhat controversial, and there is still a certain amount of purism in the general debate. However, the linguistic climate leaves space for variation, both dialectal and otherwise. The innovative use of language(s) e.g. in Greenlandic chat-rooms and in different youth groups indicates the dynamics of Greenlandic language and the ability of the young generation to face the challenges and utilize the possibilities of linguistic and cultural contact.

4 Posters:
Birgitte Jacobsen: Language contact
Mette L. Lyberth: Youth language
Lona N. Lynge: Greenlandic chat-language
K. Frederiksen, M.T. Knudsen & M. Hansen: Language and Variation

A Review on the Greenlandic Writer Kelly Berthelsen's Short Story: NASA's Most Secret Secret (Kelly Berthelsenip oqaluttualiaa: "NASA-p isertaasa isertugaanersaat" misissoqqissaarlugu)

Karen Langgaard1
1Language, Literature and Media, Ilisimatusarfik (University of Greenland), Box 279, Eqalugalinnguit 97B, Nuuk, 3900, Greenland, Phone + 299 324566, Fax + 299 324711, kala [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl

As part of my research about Greenlandic literature I would like to exhibit a poster concerning a short story "NASA's most secret secret" written by a young Greenlandic author, Kelly Berthelsen. The poster will give headlines of the development of the Greenlandic literature, which apart from hymns started in the beginning of the 20th century.
Berthelsen's story will be analyzed and the analysis of the story will relate it to the general tendencies in the Greenlandic literature, especially the tendencies during the last decade. Copies of the story rendered in English will be available and a video with an interview with the author will be shown on spot.

The Arctic and Global Warming in the American Mind

Anthony Leiserowitz1
1Decision Research, 1201 Oak Street, Eugene, OR, 97401, Phone 541-485-2400, ecotone [at] uoregon.edu

Public risk perceptions are critical components of the socio-political context within which policy makers operate. Such perceptions can fundamentally compel or constrain political, economic and social action to address particular risks, including global climate change. This presentation will report results from a recent national study on American climate change risk perceptions, policy preferences and behaviors. It found that affect, cognitive imagery and cultural values are each strong predictors of public risk perceptions and attitudes. In addition, this study identified several distinct "interpretive communities" within the American public that are predisposed to exaggerate, deny or misunderstand scientific information about climate change. Communication about climate change risks can be enhanced by tailoring messages (and messengers) for these different groups.

"North to the Future": Communicating to and from the Arctic Front Lines of Climate Change

Susanne C. Moser1
1Institute for the Study of Society and Environment, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, 80307, USA, Phone +1.303.497.8132, Fax +1.303.497.8125, smoser [at] ucar.edu

As far as climate change is concerned, the already apparent impacts in the Arctic may well be considered planetary "early warning signals" for problems yet to manifest in other parts of the world. Few in the polar region may need further "proof" that global warming is underway; many will at least recognize that something strange is going on. And yet, to truly engage the public and decision-makers on this topic is likely to be as challenging there as in many other regions. Far from the northern latitudes, removed from the evidence on the ground, people are even less concerned with the issue. Research suggests that the American public's understanding of climate change is rather limited and on several counts erroneous. Even those who do understand the issue and show great concern do not necessarily translate their worries into action.

This presentation will:
  1. examine the reasons for why scientists have had only limited success in getting through to the public and to policy-makers with their message,
  2. look at the impacts of past efforts to communicate climate change on the audience, and
  3. suggest strategies for how to improve outreach in a way that takes advantage of the regional evidence and context.

    Arctic Science Discoveries

    National Science Foundation1
    1Office of Polar Programs, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA, 22230, USA, http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/

    Our understanding of the Arctic has increased enormously over the past five decades of intense research, but much remains to be learned, and new discoveries await researchers who study this unique region. The Arctic Sciences Section of the National Science Foundation funds basic research of the Arctic through the Arctic Natural Sciences, Arctic Social Sciences, and Arctic System Science programs, with field research support from the Research Support and Logistics program. Some important research results are presented both as answers to important questions and leads to future research directions:
    • Studying Arctic Change: The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is an interagency, interdisciplinary, multiscale program to study changes occurring in the Arctic and their potential impacts.
    • A look at Ringed Seal Migration: Working with Alaska Native hunters, researchers captured a ringed seal and attached a satellite tracking device to get the first-ever look at spring migration in this species as it moves northward with the melting ice of the Chukchi Sea.
    • Photochemistry in Greenland Snow: Scientists have discovered that light-mediated chemical reactions (photochemistry) occur at the air-snow interface and significantly impact the chemical composition of air trapped in ice and of the air overlying the snow.
    • Small Streams on the Move: Researchers have discovered that small streams contribute more to removing nutrients such as nitrogen from water than do their larger counterparts. The findings are based on data collected initially from streams in NSF's Arctic Tundra Long-Term Ecological Research site in Alaska and subsequently from 12 sites across the country.
    • Living Conditions in the Arctic: This is an international effort involving a partnership of researchers and indigenous organizations across the Arctic. The purpose is to advance our understanding of changing living conditions among Inuit and Saami peoples and the indigenous peoples of Chukotka.
    • Life on the Gakkel Ridge: The Gakkel Ridge is the slowest spreading center in the world, giving scientists the opportunity to explore the earth's inner layers as the mantle spreads at about 1cm per year onto the ocean floor near the North Pole.
    • Understanding the Arctic Ocean: The Western Arctic Shelf Basin Interactions(SBI) project is investigating the impact of global change on physical, biological, and geochemical processes over the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea shelf basin in the western Arctic Ocean. Closely affiliated is the Chukchi Borderlands project to study the region where relatively cold, fresh, and nutrient-rich water from the Pacific Ocean meets warmer, saltier and deeper water from the Atlantic Ocean over a bottom tortuously rife with slopes, ridges and deep-sea plateaus.

    CALM II: The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring Program's Second Five-Year Plan, 2004-2009

    Frederick E. Nelson1, Nikolay I. Shiklomanov2, Jerry Brown3
    1Department of Geography, University of Delaware, Pearson Hall, Newark, DE, 19716, USA, Phone 302.831.8269, Fax 302.831.6654, fnelson [at] udel.edu
    2Department of Geography, University of Delaware, Pearson Hall, Newark, DE, 19716, USA, Phone 302.831.1314, Fax 302.831.6654, shiklom [at] udel.edu
    3International Permafrost Association, PO Box 7, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, USA, Phone 508-457-4982, Fax 508-457-4982, jerrybrown [at] igc.org

    Several factors converged in the late 1980s and early 1990s to encourage development of long-term geocryological monitoring, and to make the resulting data sets freely available to interested users: (1) publicity about the impacts of climate change followed two decades of unprecedented resource development in the cold regions and raised concerns about the stability of associated infrastructure; (2) the global nature of climatic change made apparent the need for widespread cooperation among permafrost scientists, who became increasingly aware of the importance of their subject in the context of recent climate change, (3) international agreements were signed and governments became concerned with facilitating data exchanges with interested users; and (4) permafrost scientists became increasingly aware of the benefits accruing from free exchange of data. The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) network is a highly successful geocryological monitoring program that developed in the 1990s in accord with the principles of data rescue, archiving, and exchange developed during the previous decade. CALM now consists of more than 125 observation sites in both polar regions, as well as several midlatitude mountain ranges. The CALM program is allied closely with several comprehensive international global climate-change programs. CALM recently received its second five-year block of support from the U.S. National Science Foundation. This presentation discusses the main features of CALM II, which include measurements of active-layer thickness, the thermal regime of the active layer and shallow permafrost, and frost heave and thaw settlement. In addition, CALM II includes several sites at which critical field experiments are conducted. CALM II and it companion program, Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP), constitute the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P), a comprehensive global-change permafrost monitoring program.

    Ilullisat; a Greenlandic World Heritage Site

    Henriette Rasmussen1
    1Ministry of Culture, Education and Church, Greenland Home Rule, PO Box 1015 , NUUK, DK-3900, Greenland, Phone +299 32 20 73, Fax +299 32 20 73, mariannestenbaek [at] yahoo.ca

    Ilullisat on the west coast of Greenland is one of the most beautiful and unique areas in the world. Many glaciers travelling along the coast of Greenland and Canada originate here. It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 2004.

    Exhibition: Whose Eyes are Watching? Kiap isaanit isigalugu

    Jette Rygaard1, Birgit K. Pedersen2, Mette L. Lyberth3, Lona N. Lynge4
    1Department of Language, Literature & Media , Ilisimatusarfik. University of Greenland, Box 279, Nuuk, 3900, Greenland, Phone + 299 32 45 66, Fax + 299 32 47 11, jery [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
    2Department of Language, Literature & Media , Ilisimatusarfik. University of Greenland, Box 279, Nuuk, AK, 3900, Greenland, Phone + 299 32 45 66, Fax + 299 32 47 11, bipe [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
    3Department of Language, Literature & Media , Ilisimatusarfik. University of Greenland, Box 279, Nuuk, AK, 3900, Greenland, Phone + 299 32 45 66, Fax + 299 32 47 11, mela [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl
    4Department of Language, Literature & Media , Ilisimatusarfik. University of Greenland, Box 279, Nuuk, AK, 3900, Greenland, Phone + 299 32 45 66, Fax + 299 32 47 11, lonl [at] ilisimatusarfik.gl

    During a week in 2001 & 2003, we delivered disposable cameras & diaries to two groups of Greenlandic youth groups (10-12 years of age & 12-19 years of age). The Purpose was to focus on the young peoples' own 'voices' and the role of media in their everyday life. By using this research method, we received insightful information which we would not be able to reach otherwise. In this poster session, we would like to exhibit two posters concerning this project and ten selected photos from each age group (i.e. 20 photos in total).

    Is anyone out there? Making the broadest-possible impact with Web-based outreach

    Sonya Senkowsky1
    1Alaska Science Outreach, AlaskaWriter LLC, PO Box 140030, Anchorage, AK, 99514, USA, Phone 907-830-7355, Fax 210-855-0125, sonya [at] alaskawriter.com

    Case studies demonstrate how some researchers are using Web technologies to make a broader impact while making the most of limited resources. One development is the use of journalism techniques to document fieldwork. AlaskaWriter LLC, founded by a science journalist, consults on the production of science content, with a focus on developing research-based outreach for the general public. In July 2004, AlaskaWriter LLC created a Website from aboard the R/V Roger Revelle, "Exploring Corals of the Aleutian Seas" (http://www.alaskascienceoutreach.com/coralsite). The publication-ready storytelling approach resulted in statewide media attention and an online audience. A documentary approach was also used by WHOI photographer Christopher Linder reporting from sea from 2002-04 for the Western Arctic Shelf Basin Interactions Experiment, "Edge of the Arctic Shelf." Lessons learned from both experiences include the need to set reasonable expectations for daily postings; the importance of establishing advance educational, media and in-house partnerships; and the value of documenting the experiences as well as the science. Also, before any outreach is considered, it is important to carefully consider goals, desired audience and resources. Future directions in Internet outreach will likely involve increased use of Web logs, or "blogs," by scientists. One collaborative blog created by climate scientists has attracted more than 250,000 visits and produced other positive results. As more Websites are created, however, it will become increasingly difficult to be heard above the din. Subject-based portals, or blog communities, could be one answer. One possible model: AlaskaWriter LLC's demonstration project, Alaska Science Outreach (at http://www.alaskascienceoutreach.com) blends storytelling and interactive elements with blog software, and acts as a non-institution-based portal to existing online outreach. Alaska Science Outreach seeks volunteer contributors as well as partners interested in supporting further development.

    Protecting Species Threatened by Global Warming under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Case Study of the Polar Bear

    Kassie R. Siegel1, Brendan R. Cummings2
    1Center for Biological Diversity, P.O. Box 549, Joshua Tree, CA, 92252, USA, Phone (760) 366-2232 , Fax (760) 366-2669, ksiegel [at] biologicaldiversity.org
    2Center for Biological Diversity, P.O. Box 549, Joshua Tree, CA, 92252, USA, Phone (760) 366-2232 , Fax (760) 366-2669, bcummings [at] biologicaldiversity.org

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) is designed to prevent extinction of plant and animal species via significant protection of species listed as "threatened," or "endangered." Under the Act, a species is "threatened" if it is likely to become in danger of extinction within the "foreseeable future." We demonstrate that the polar bear currently meets the definition of a threatened species, primarily due to the current and projected melting of its sea-ice habitat from global warming. The listing of the polar bear under the ESA will provide significant protection to the species, will aid in educating the American public about the consequences of global warming, and should provide additional mechanisms for achieving reductions in United States greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, in February, 2005, the Center for Biological Diversity submitted a petition to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to formally list the polar bear as a threatened species under the ESA.

    Availability of Near-Realtime Arctic Climate/Ecosystem Change Indicators

    Nancy N. Soreide1, John Calder2, James E. Overland3
    1NOAA/PMEL, OD, 7600 Sand Point Wy NE, Seattle, WA, 98115, USA, Phone 206 526 6728, Fax 206 526 4576, nancy.n.soreide [at] noaa.gov
    2NOAA Arctic Research Office, HQTR Route: R/ARC, 315 EAST WEST HWY , SILVER SPRING, MD, USA, Phone 20910-3282, john.calder [at] noaa.gov
    3NOAA/PMEL, WA, USA, james.e.overland [at] noaa.gov

    The Arctic Change website provides information on the state of the Arctic in an accessible, understandable, and scientifically credible format: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/detect/. Areas include climate change, global impacts,
    ice processes, and land, marine and human ecosystems. The Arctic Change Indicators website provides a near-realtime update for the key findings of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Report (ACIA). Users entering the website see a summary of core issues at a glance, and succinct narrative status reports and time series documenting change are available with a single mouse click. Information for each core issue also includes recent news headlines and prominent scientific articles. The website has become an important source of Arctic information, being near the top of Google Search with an average of about 9000 hits per day. Future directions are a peer-reviewed State of the Arctic Report, and a summary of model forecasts for Arctic climate based on the IPCC AR4 Report. NOAA's objectives are to inform dialog with reliable scientific evidence, raise issue awareness, and support decision making.

    White spruce performance variation across latitudes and altitudes in Alaska

    Bjartmar Sveinbjörnsson1, Tumi Traustason2, Matthew R. Smith3, Roger Ruess4
    1Biological Sciences, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA, Phone (907)786 1366, Fax (907) 786 1314, afbs [at] uaa.alaska.edu
    2Department of Biology and Wildlife , University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 957007-7000, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA, Phone 907-474-5404, fstt [at] uaf.edu
    3Biological Sciences, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA, Phone (907)786 1366, Fax (907) 786 1314, mreevesmith [at] yahoo.com
    4Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 757000, Fairbanks, AK, USA, Phone 907-474-7153, Fax 907-474-6967, ffrwr [at] uaf.edu

    White spruce performance was assessed in paired treeline and forest sites in three watersheds in the Chugach Mountains, the White Mountains, and the Brooks Range. Soil and air temperatures and season length decreased with latitude and in the two southern mountains also with altitude, while the reverse altitudinal pattern was found in the Brooks Range. Average wind speeds were lowest in the Brooks Range but similar in the White Mountains and the Chugach Mountains, although frequency of extreme wind speeds was higher in the Chugach Mountains.

    Needle longevity increased with latitude but decreased with altitude in two southern mountains. Leader death, canopy damage and lateral branch needle loss decreased with latitude but increased with altitude in the White Mountains and especially the Chugach Range. The relationship between diameter and height varied between altitudes in the two southern mountains but not in the Brooks Range. Tree height and density generally decreased with altitude but not with latitude.

    Branch extension growth decreased latitudinally and most years it declined with altitude in the two southern mountains. In two years out of eleven, annual branch growth was greater or equal at treeline to that in the forest in the southern mountains, while in the Brooks Range extension growth was generally greater at treeline than in the forest.

    The entire tree branch non-structural carbohydrate needle pool size was primarily controlled by needle mass and carbohydrate concentration Geo-spatial variation in needle production and needle loss affected this pool size. The non-structural carbohydrate pool in the three youngest annual needle cohorts of each tree branch explained 85% of the site variation in branch growth across latitudes and altitudes.

    Facilitating Collaborative Scientific and Technical Research in the Arctic Sciences and Geosciences

    Marianna Voevodskaya1, David Lindeman2, Shawn Wheeler3
    1Cooperative Programs Office, CRDF, 32A Leninskiy Prospekt, Moscow, 119334, Russia, Phone 7-095-938-5151, Fax 7-095-938-1838, voevodsk [at] ras.ru
    2Development and Outreach, CRDF, 1530 Wilson Blvd., Ste. 300, Arlington, VA, 22209, USA, Phone (703) 526-9720, Fax (703) 526-9721, dlindeman [at] crdf.org
    3Grants Administration, CRDF, 1530 Wilson Blvd., Ste. 300, Arlington, VA, 22209, USA, Phone (703) 526-9720, Fax (703) 526-9721, swheeler [at] crdf.org

    The U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) is a private, nonprofit, grant-making organization created in 1995 by the U.S. Government (National Science Foundation).

    The CRDF promotes international scientific and technical collaboration, primarily between the United States and Eurasia, through grants, technical resources, and training. The Foundation's goals are to support exceptional research projects that offer scientists and engineers alternatives to emigration and strengthen the scientific and technological infrastructure of their home countries; advance the transition of foreign weapons scientists to civilian work by funding collaborative non-weapons research and development projects; help move applied research to the marketplace and bring economic benefits both to the U.S. and the countries with which the CRDF works; and strengthen research and education in universities abroad.

    Three CRDF programs provide support to U.S. and Russian scientists engaged in collaborative Arctic and geosciences-related research. First, under a contract with the National Science Foundation, CRDF provides an office and personnel in Moscow to assist Office of Polar Programs (OPP) and Geosciences Directorate (GEO) grantees and collaborators with programmatic activities, including identifying and communicating with individual and institutional partners, navigating government agencies, facilitating travel and visas, and providing on-site office support to visiting U.S. travelers. Second, the CRDF Cooperative Grants Program allows US-Russian collaborators in Arctic sciences and geosciences to apply for two-year R&D grants averaging approximately $65,000. Third, the CRDF Grant Assistance Program (GAP) enables U.S. government agencies, universities, and other organizations to utilize CRDF's financial and administrative infrastructure to transfer payments, purchase and deliver equipment and supplies, and carry out other project management services to collaborators in Russia and elsewhere in Eurasia.

    Synthesis of Arctic Science at the University of New Hampshire

    Cameron P. Wake1, Jack Dibb2, Mark Twickler3, Charles Vörösmarty4, Richard Lammers5, Alexander Shiklomanov6, Mark Fahnestock7, Steve Frolking8, Xiangming Xiao9, Changsheng Li10, Michael Rawlins11, Marc Lessard12, Roger Arnoldy13, Larry Mayer14, Andy Armstrong15, Jim Gardner16, Martin Jakobsson17, Lawrence Hamilton18, Cliff Brown19
    1Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-2329, Fax 603-862-2124, cameron.wake [at] unh.edu
    2Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans & Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824-3525, USA, Phone 603-862-3063, Fax 603-862-2124, jack.dibb [at] unh.edu
    3Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824-3525, USA, Phone 603-862-1991, Fax 603-862-2124, mark.twickler [at] unh.edu
    4Water Systems Analysis Group, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Halll, Durham, NH, 03824-3525, USA, Phone 603-862-0850, Fax 603-862-0587, charles.vorosmarty [at] unh.edu
    5Water Systems Analysis Group, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-4699, Fax 603-862-0587, richard.lammers [at] unh.edu
    6Complex System Research Center , University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-4387, Fax 603-862-0188, sasha [at] eos.sr.unh.edu
    7Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-0322, Fax 603-862-1915, mark.fahnestock [at] unh.edu
    8Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824-3525, USA, Phone 603-862-0244, Fax 603-862-0188, steve.frolking [at] unh.edu
    9Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-0322, Fax 603-862-1915, xiao [at] eos.sr.unh.edu
    10Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-0322, Fax 603-862-1915, changsheng.li [at] unh.edu
    11Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road - Morse Hall, Durham, NH, 03824-0188, USA, Phone 603-862-4734, Fax 603-862-0188, rawlins [at] eos.sr.unh.edu
    12Department of Physics, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Hall, Hanover, NH, 03755-3528, USA, Phone 603-646-2310, Fax 603-646-1446, marc [at] einstein.dartmouth.edu
    13Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, 38 Woodridge Road, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-868-5095, roger.arnoldy [at] unh.ede
    14Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire, Chase Ocean Engineering Lab, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-2615, Fax 603-862-0839, larry.mayer [at] unh.edu
    15Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-4559, Fax 603-862-0839, andrew.armstrong [at] unh.edu
    16Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-3473, Fax 603-862-0839, jim.gardner.unh.edu
    17Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-3755, Fax 603-862-0839, martin.jakobsson [at] unh.edu
    18Department of Sociology HSSC, University of New Hampshire, 20 College Road, Durham, NH, 03824-3509, USA, Phone 603-862-1859, Fax 603-862-3558, lawrence.hamilton [at] unh.edu
    19Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, 420 Horton Social Science Center, Durham, NH, 03824, USA, Phone 603-862-0765, Fax 603-862-3558, cliff.brown [at] unh.edu

    Several different research groups at the University of New Hampshire are currently active in a wide variety of Arctic research. Over the course of the next few years, we hope to synthesize this Arctic research to develop a broader understanding of change in the Arctic. A brief overview of areas of Arctic research excellence are outlined below. More information on Arctic research at UNH is provided online at: http://arctic.unh.edu.

    Tracking Atmospheric transport of Contaminants to the Arctic: The Arctic troposphere carries chemicals emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources, with many of the source regions long distances upwind in more populous regions in North America, Europe and Asia. During intercontinental-scale transport to, and within, the Arctic, these are mixed and chemically processed with additional emissions from surface sources in the Arctic (cities, forests, tundra, the ocean, and, surprisingly, sunlit snow across the entire basin), and with air injected from the stratosphere. Many of the natural and pollutant chemicals are removed from the Arctic troposphere by dry deposition and precipitation, with snow falling onto glaciers throughout the Arctic preserving a valuable record of the past composition. Our group has advanced the understanding of this complex system through airborne and surface-based atmospheric sampling, detailed study of the two-way exchange between the troposphere and surface snow, and the recovery and interpretation of high-resolution glaciochemical records from Greenland and throughout the North American Arctic.

    Land Surface Hydrology: One of the key research objectives of the Water Systems Analysis Group is to understand the variability of the pan-Arctic hydrological budget over space and time. We work closely with partners to assemble integrated and harmonized data sets covering the full pan-Arctic domain, involving remote sensing derived data layers (e.g. primary thaw day from SeaWinds Scatterometer, station based data, and modeled data. One of our fundamental tasks has been to identify the major storage and flux terms over the Arctic and to determine the extent of fresh water budget closure.

    Upper Atmospheric Physics: This research in the Arctic is largely centered around auroral phenomena and associated processes. While aurora provides spectacular visual displays, it is also the last link in a complex chain of events involving the transfer of energy from the Sun to Earth. Investigations to study aurora are carried out with ground-based instrumentation as well as sounding rockets, launched into space above the aurora.

    Mapping the Continental Shelf: Under the direction of the US Congress, the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC) is conducting a detailed analysis of current U.S. data holdings relevant to a potential claim and identify regions where the collection of new ocean mapping data could substantially improve the quality of a claim. Among these areas, the Arctic is outstanding in that the existing database is far too sparse to support a well-defended claim, especially in areas where the perennial ice cover has prevented surface ships from operating. Thus the CCOM/JHC has been exploring means to collect modern mapping data in ice-covered regions and undertaken a series of cruises on a multibeam sonar-equipped icebreaker (HEALY) to collect data relevant to a potential claim under Article 76. In addition to directly addressing Law of the Sea issues, the new data collected also significantly adds to data needed to support the growing recognition of the critical role that the Arctic Ocean plays in the climatic and tectonic history of the Earth. The new bathymetric data (as well as associated CTD measurements) will help define the nature of deep circulation in the Arctic Basin as well as the history and distribution of ice in the region, a key component of the global climate system.

    The North Atlantic Arc: The NAArc project examines human-environment interactions through case studies of recent changes experienced by fisheries-dependent societies in Newfoundland, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway. The interdisciplinary case studies integrate information about oceanographic and marine-ecosystem change with fisheries, demographic and other social-change data.

    Methane Bubbling from Siberian Thaw Lakes: A Positive Feedback to Climate Change

    Katey M. Walter1, Sergei A. Zimov2, Jeffery P. Chanton3, F. Stuart Chapin, III4
    1Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 84578, Fairbanks, AK, 99708, USA, Phone 907-479-7300, Fax 907-474-7616, ftkmw1 [at] uaf.edu
    2North East Science Station, Russian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 18, Republic Sakha - Yakutiya, Cherskii, 678830, Russia, Phone +7-41157-23013, Fax +7-41157-22560, sazimov [at] cher.sakha.ru
    3Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Room 317 OSB, West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4320, USA, Phone 850-644-7493, Fax 850-644-2581, chanton [at] ocean.fsu.edu
    4Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 757000, Fairbanks, AK, 99775-7000, USA, Phone 907-474-7922, Fax 907-474-6967, fffsc [at] aurora.uaf.edu

    Ebullition is often the dominant pathway of methane release from aquatic ecosystems, yet it has seldom been carefully measured, due to heterogeneity in the spatial distribution and episodic release of gas bubbles. This likely results in an underestimation of total methane emission.

    We took advantage of ice formation over lake surfaces in NE Siberia to map patterns of methane bubbles trapped in lake ice. We located 'hot-spot' ebullition sites as holes in the ice that remain open throughout winter due to exceptionally high rates of methane bubbling. Through random and selective placement of underwater/ under-ice chambers we measured 'background' and 'hot-spot' fluxes annually. The combination of mapping and chamber measurements among different types of thermokarst lakes enabled us to 1) improve estimates of methane emissions from NE Siberian lakes, and to 2) identify thermokarst erosion as a landscape process that enhances methane production and emission.

    Ebullition comprised 96% of total methane emission from lakes. Hotspot sites, which occurred along thermokarst margins, released up to 23 g CH4 m-2 d-1. Extrapolation of our methane bubbling measurements to all North Siberian thermokarst lakes would increase the estimate of methane emissions from northern latitude ecosystems by 9-58%.

    Thermokarst lakes in North Siberia comprise a large proportion of the world's high latitude lakes; yet they are understudied. Melting of ice-rich (50-90% ice) permafrost soil along lake margins (thermokarst erosion) deposits organic-rich (~2%) mineral soil into anaerobic lake bottoms, providing a fresh, labile substrate for methanogenesis. Stable isotope and radiocarbon age dating of methane bubbles reveal the importance of Pleistocene-age organic matter as a source for methane production in lakes sediments. Increased thermokarst erosion with climate warming would provide a positive feedback to methane production and emission from lakes. Results from this study suggest ebullition may be a more important pathway of methane emission from aquatic ecosystems than previously reported.

    Arctic Logistics Information and Support: ALIAS

    Wendy K. Warnick1, Josh Klauder2
    1Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK, 99709, USA, Phone 907-474-1600, Fax 907-474-1604, info [at] arcus.org
    2Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK, 99709, USA, Phone 907-746-5959, Fax 907-474-1604, josh [at] arcus.org

    The ALIAS web site is a gateway to logistics information for arctic research, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, and created and maintained by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States ( ARCUS). ALIAS supports the collaborative development and efficient use of all arctic logistics resources. It presents information from a searchable database, including both arctic terrestrial resources and arctic-capable research vessels, on a circumpolar scale.

    With this encompassing scope, ALIAS is uniquely valuable as a tool to promote and facilitate international collaboration between researchers, which is of increasing importance for vessel-based research due to the high cost and limited number of platforms. Users of the web site can search for and identify vessels as potential platforms for their research, examine and compare vessel specifications and facilities, learn about research cruises the vessel has performed in the past, and find contact information for scientists who have used the vessel, as well as for the owners and operators of the vessel.

    The purpose of this poster presentation is to inform the scientific community about the ALIAS website as a tool for planning arctic research generally, and particularly for identifying and contacting vessels which may be suitable for planned ship-based research projects in arctic seas.

    Teachers and Researchers - Exploring and Collaborating (TREC)

    Helen V. Wiggins1, Janet Warburton2, Wendy K. Warnick3
    1Arctic Research Consortium of the US, 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK, 99709, USA, Phone 907-474-1600, Fax 907-474-1604, helen [at] arcus.org
    2Arctic Research Consortium of the US, 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK, 99709, USA, Phone 907-474-1600, Fax 907-474-1604, warburton [at] arcus.org
    3Arctic Research Consortium of the US, 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK, 99709, USA, Phone 907-474-1600, Fax 907-474-1604, warnick [at] arcus.org

    In Teachers and Researchers - Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), K–12 teachers participate in arctic field projects, working closely with researchers to improve science education through experiences in scientific inquiry. TREC builds on the scientific and cultural opportunities of the Arctic to link research and education through topics that naturally engage students and the wider public. In addition to arctic field research experiences, TREC supports teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups.

    While in the field, teachers and researchers communicated extensively with their colleagues, communities, and approximately 500 students of all ages in over 20 classrooms, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, and interactive "webinars" (web-based seminars). Researchers interacted with students during visits to schools before and after the field experience. The online outreach elements of the project also conveyed these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the TREC teachers.

    TREC 2005 features seven field expeditions across the Arctic including expedition to Toolik Lake, Alaska, Thule, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, Alaska and Canada, the Arctic Ocean aboard the Healy Icebreaker, and the Ikpikpuk River delta, Alaska.

    Funding for TREC is provided by the NSF Office of Polar Programs, and administered by ARCUS with logistical support from VECO Polar Resources. For more information, see the TREC web site: www.arcus.org/trec, or contact Helen Wiggins at ARCUS (907-474-1600; fax 907-474-1604; helen [at] arcus.org%29.">helen [at] arcus.org).

    Climate Lessons from the First International Polar Year, 1881-1884

    Kevin R. Wood1, James E. Overland2
    1JISAO (U. Washington/NOAA), NOAA/PMEL, OE2, 7600 Sand Point Wy NE, Seattle, WA, 98115, USA, Phone 206 526 6862, Fax 206 526 6485, Kevin.R.Wood [at] noaa.gov
    2NOAA/PMEL, WA, USA, james.e.overland [at] noaa.gov

    The records of the first International Polar Year (IPY), which took place from 1881 to 1884, contain the first series of coordinated meteorological observations ever obtained at multiple locations in the Polar Regions. The collection of this data was one of the principal objects of the first IPY. The program of observations was successfully completed, but afterwards the data fell into obscurity without result. Today, these records provide a valuable historical resource for comparison with 20th century observations of climate and environmental change in the Arctic. We found that surface air temperature (SAT) and sea-level pressure (SLP) observed during 1882-1883 were within limits of recent climatology and were consistent with a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern of variability. This unique data and an extensive collection of documentary images from the first IPY are now available to researchers for the first time in digital format at: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/aro/ipy-1.