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Climate of the Little Ice Age and the past 2000 years in Northeast Iceland inferred from chironomids and other lake sediment proxies
Axford, Y., Geirsdottir, A., Miller, G.H., and Langdon, P.G.
Stora Viðarvatn is situated at 151 m asl on the Melrakkaslétta peninsula of northeast Iceland, less than 5 km from the bay of Þistilfjörður. The lake is 48 meters deep with a surface area of 2.4 square kilometers. A surface core was recovered from the lake in July 2005, and a longer piston core was obtained in February 2004.
Downcore data include chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblage data and total carbon, nitrogen and biogenic silica concentrations:
The temperature history inferred for Stora Viðarvatn over the past 2000 years based upon chironomids is consistent with other proxies from the lake, as well as Icelandic historical records and inferences from marine sediments and glacial geology. Much of the first millennium AD was relatively warm compared with later centuries. Temperatures declined between the 12th and 19th centuries AD in several steps, with the most severe conditions occurring during the 18th and 19th centuries. Cold periods at Stora Viðarvatn were characterized by some combination of intensified soil erosion and decreased lake productivity.