|Title||PIs||CoPI(s)||Other Project Members||Start Date||End Date||Abstract||Programs||Funding Agency||Implementation Categories||Keywords||Region||Grant/Project Funding Amount||Project Identifer(s)||Project Web Link||Weblink to data and/or metadata||Outreach/Education Description|
|Seasonality of Circumpolar Tundra: Ocean and Atmosphere Controls and Effects on Energy and Carbon Budgets|
Michael Steele (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Martha (Tako) Raynolds
The goals of this project are:
The project is divided into the three broad components:
Component 2: Atmosphere and ocean controls of terrestrial seasonality. Our research will focus on analyzing the seasonal NDVI patterns in relation to characteristics of the near-shore ocean and sea-ice environment, atmospheric circulation, regional winds, and land characteristics. We will devote particular attention to the climate mechanisms behind the striking contrast between the vegetation response to declining sea ice in Berengia and west-central Eurasia by examining the seasonality of the atmosphere and marine systems in the 50-km coastal zone in these regions.
Component 3: Land energy and carbon linkages. One method for assessing the effects of changing vegetation seasonality on carbon budgets is to use phenomenological relationships that exist between remotely-sensed indices of vegetation and field observations of aboveground biomass.
Published relationships exist between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the biomass of aboveground vegetation (or some components of aboveground vegetation) for arctic tundra ecosystems (Hope et al. 1993, Boelman et al 2003, 2005, Reidel et al. 2005). Epstein additionally has an extensive dataset of NDVI and aboveground vegetation biomass (manuscript in prep.) collected from sites throughout the Arctic of both North America (Epstein et al. 2008) and Russia, including data from all five of the arctic bioclimate subzones (Subzones A-E; sensu Walker et al. 2005). Growing season curves of the NDVI generated from satellite data (Component I) could thus be translated into growing season aboveground biomass curves, and the accumulation of carbon in aboveground tissue could be estimated. For an additional whole-season approach, the temporally-integrated (within a growing season) NDVI (TI-NDVI) has been related to the peak season aboveground biomass (Jia et al. 2006), and these relationships could be used to assess interannual changes in the stocks of aboveground carbon.
The seasonal progression of arctic terrestrial biomass, and the timing and magnitude of peak biomass are changing. This change is not consistent across all tundra ecosystems, for reasons that are still unclear. Preliminary research indicates a potential link with the seasonality of nearby marine surface conditions, i.e., sea ice and upper ocean properties. We propose to perform both statistical and model-based analyses to better understand these important linkages. We follow this with a modeling analysis of the effects of changing vegetation seasonality on plant functional type composition and arctic terrestrial carbon accumulation (or loss). The results will be a synthetic view of changing seasonality across the land/ocean boundary of the Arctic Ocean.
|Arctic System Science Program||National Science Foundation||Understanding Change|
East Siberian Sea
We are working with the University of Alaska Fairbanks Museum to provide data and graphics of sea ice concentration, NDVI (over Arctic tundra), surface temperatures (over Arctic Tundra) for a visualization to appear at the museum on a Magic Planet Display. This display is about 30 inches in diameter and project onto a sphere to provide an Arctic view. The museum project was funded by NASA and partners with the Imaginarium Discover Center at the Anchorage Museum and the Challenger Learning Center in Kenai. There is also a traveling device, so our tundra greening story will be presented throughout Alaska in outreach and educational venues.
"Skip Walker on satellite observations of Arctic Greening", Program #5733 of the Earth & Sky Radio Series, aired 05-March-2009.
|UpTempO: Measuring the Upper Layer Temperature of the Arctic Ocean|
Michael Steele (email@example.com)
Ice-based buoys exist that can measure temperature profiles, but these are not optimized for observing the open sea. Thus the objective of this proposal is to fill this gap in the Arctic Observing Network measurement strategy, i.e., to measure the time history of summer warming and subsequent fall cooling of the seasonally open water areas of the Arctic Ocean. The PIs will focus on those areas with the greatest ice retreat, i.e., the northern Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas. Their method will be to build up to 10 relatively inexpensive ocean thermistor string buoys per year, to be deployed in the seasonally ice-free regions of the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic-ADOS (Autonomous Drifting Ocean Station) buoy will float at the ocean surface, equipped with (i) a sea level pressure sensor, (ii) a 50 m long string of 11 thermistors, and (iii) a high precision conductivity/temperature pair at 5 m depth on some buoys for thermistor calibration. Data will be recorded every 2 hours and downloaded in near real time via ARGOS satellite to the web site of the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP). Daily average and vertically interpolated data (to 1 m bins) will also be provided on the IABP website, and will be sent to data archives (CADIS and NODC). The PIs will also work with scientists at mission-oriented agencies to better incorporate ocean surface data into their global products such as Sea Surface Temperature analyses. Real-time data will also be made available to the operational community via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). Buoy deployment will use existing assets such as C130 aircraft coordinated by the National Ice Center (NIC), ship cruises planned as part of other projects, and springtime ice surveys conducted by other projects and/or by the U.S. Navy north of Alaska.
|Arctic Observing Network||National Science Foundation|
East Siberian Sea