|Title||PIs||CoPI(s)||Other Project Members||Start Date||End Date||Abstract||Programs||Funding Agency||Implementation Categories||Keywords||Region||Grant/Project Funding Amount||Project Identifer(s)||Project Web Link||Weblink to data and/or metadata||Outreach/Education Description|
|Icebergs - International Ice Patrol|
The U.S. Coast Guard formally operates the International Ice Patrol (IIP) by promoting safe navigation of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean where the danger of iceberg collisions exist.
The IIP monitors iceberg danger near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provides the limits of all known ice to the maritime community.
The vision is to eliminate the risk of iceberg collision.
The U.S. Coast Guard formally begins its seasonal ice observation and Ice Patrol service whenever icebergs threaten primary shipping routes between Europe and the U.S. and Canada. This usually occurs in the month of February and the threat usually extends through July, but the Ice Patrol is flexible and commences operations when iceberg conditions dictate. The activities of the International Ice Patrol are delineated by treaty and U.S. law to encompass only those ice regions of the North Atlantic Ocean through which the major trans-Atlantic tracks pass. Fixed wing Coast Guard aircraft conduct the primary reconnaissance work for the Ice Patrol. Ice reconnaissance flights are made on the average of five days every other week during the ice season. The usual patrol time for these long range multi-engine planes is between 5 to 7 hours, with each flight covering an expanse of water of 30,000 square miles or more. Information concerning ice conditions is collected primarily from air surveillance flights and ships operating in or passing through the ice area. Ships are requested to report the position and time of all ice sighted and make sea surface temperature and weather reports to the International Ice Patrol Operations Center in Groton, CT, every 6 hours when in the vicinity of the Grand Banks. All the iceberg data are fed into a computer model at the IIP Operations Center along with ocean current and wind data. Using this information, the model predicts the drift of the icebergs. Every 12 hours, the predicted iceberg locations are used to estimate the limit of all known ice. This limit, along with a few of the more critical predicted iceberg locations, is broadcast as an "Ice Bulletin" from radio stations around the U.S., Canada, Europe and over the World Wide Web.
|U.S. Coast Guard||U.S. Department of Homeland Security||Observing Change|
Grand Banks, Newfoundland
North Atlantic Ocean
|Collaborative Research: IPY: Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO)|
Bruce Peterson (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) project will assess river constituent (chemistry, isotopes, nutrients) fluxes and discharge in the Ob', Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers. These observations will be used to test hypotheses about the magnitude, controls and ecological significance of these fluxes, and will provide new information on inter-annual variability and trends in the major fluxes of constituents to the Arctic Ocean. By measuring the flux of water and constituents in these key rivers at the junction between the continents and the Arctic Ocean, it is possible to efficiently assess changes occurring across vast regions of the continents that may diagnose environmental change on land, and forecast imminent changes in circulation and biogeochemical processes in the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. Monitoring the great arctic rivers is an essential component of any comprehensive Arctic Observatory program and is critical for understanding environmental change in the Arctic, a goal of SEARCH. The data collection will represent a pulse of activity within the IPY timeframe and will provide a legacy of data for future investigations. Arctic-GRO is based upon strong scientific collaborations among US, Canadian and Russian scientists. It also represents a major component of the Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network (ACCO-Net), an overarching IPY initiative designed to link key coastal erosion monitoring sites established as part of the international Arctic Coastal Dynamics project with major arctic river sampling sites established as part of the NSF Freshwater Integration (FWI) study. The project will link with and extend the Student Partners Project, a science and education effort involving K-12 students and their teachers at each sampling site. Teachers and their students are educated in global change and in turn collect river samples of selected constituents at higher frequencies than would otherwise be possible, thereby improving the science.
|Arctic Observing Network||National Science Foundation|
North Atlantic Ocean
|Collaborative Research: Development of a High-Resolution, Unstructured Grid, Finite-Volume Coupled Ice-Ocean Model for the Arctic Ocean||09/15/2007||08/31/2010|
Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMIP) studies recommend two key model improvements for Arctic Ocean research: 1) increase model horizontal and vertical grid resolution and 2) include tidal motions in the model dynamics to provide physically-based mixing rates that vary both horizontally and vertically depending on tidal currents and ice-tide interactions. This effort seeks to complete the development and evaluation of a new high-resolution unstructured-grid, finite-volume coupled ice-ocean model for the Arctic Ocean (AO-FVCOM) and use this model to investigate the influences of coastline fitting, steep bathymetry, tides and tidal processes, surface wind stress, heat flux, atmospheric loading, coastal freshwater forcing, ice dynamics, and boundary forcing on Arctic Ocean circulation and water mass/sea ice distributions and variability. Both AO-FVCOM hindcast experiments following AOMIP specifications and process-oriented experiments are planned. These simulations will quantify the impacts of coastal geometry and bathymetry resolution on circulation and freshwater transport in the complex Canadian Archipelago and other coastal seas and the exchange processes between the Archipelago, Arctic basins, and the North Atlantic, plus provide new insight into the nonlinear interactions between ocean circulation, atmospheric forcing, sea ice, tides, and time-dependent river discharge and Bering Strait inflow and their different influences on Arctic Ocean oceanography. AO-FVCOM will be an open community model system available through the project website.
This project will provide a new high-resolution unstructured-grid, finite volume Arctic Ocean model (AO-FVCOM) for use in regional and global ocean circulation and climate change studies. AO-FVCOM is significantly different from existing Arctic Ocean structured-grid models due to the geometric flexibility inherent in the unstructured-grid approach and the local mass, momentum, heat, and salt conservation and computational efficiency inherent in the finite-volume approach. AO-FVCOM hindcasts using AOMIP forcing and analysis methods will help evaluate AO-FVCOM for long-term ocean and climate change studies, while the AO-FVCOM process-oriented experiments will advance our understanding of the nonlinear interactions between tides, sea ice, wind stress, heat flux, atmospheric loading, and time dependent river discharge and boundary inflow on ocean circulation, water structure and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. AO-FVCOM development and model experiments will provide an exciting new tool to study the linkages between Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans (especially through the Canadian Archipelago) and allow direct numerical simulation of the high-latitude buoyancy driven coastal boundary current that drives the shelf and upper slope circulation from Labrador south to Cape Hatteras.
|Arctic System Science Program||National Science Foundation||Observing Change|
North Atlantic Ocean
|Collaborative Research: Syntheses of Sea Ice, Climate, and Human Systems in the Arctic and Subarctic (SYNICE)|
Jeffery Rogers (email@example.com)
The SYNICE project seeks to improve the understanding of pan-Arctic and North Atlantic climate and human systems through the integration and syntheses of several sea-ice data sets together with information from the physical and social sciences. The project is analyzing data from the past 1000 years, with major emphasis on the period c. AD 1800 to the present. Five major locations/sea-ice data sets are being considered: i) The sea-ice record from Iceland; ii) The sea-ice record from the Barents Sea area; iii) The record of historical ice conditions around Newfoundland and on the Grand Banks, and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Scotian Shelf; iv) The Odden region of the central Greenland Sea; v) A climate and sea-ice record based on Moravian missionary accounts from Nain, Labrador. Two other components will investigate local knowledge of sea-ice and other climate changes, specifically in Iceland and Labrador/Nunatsiavut. Deliverables include: i) Development of a new 150-year central Greenland Sea ice-atmosphere dataset; ii) Analysis and modeling of the relationship between ice extent and production in the Central Greenland Sea and the occurrence of deep convection; iii) An interpretation of how Greenland Sea convection has varied over the past 150 years, together with implications of this for the development of ocean changes and marine climate in the Nordic Seas during this period; iv) A homogeneous and reliable long-term sea-ice record for Iceland; v) A synthesis of the sea-ice records with circulation data in order to gain insights into past, present and future natural climate variability of pan-Arctic systems; and vi) a study of the social impacts of changing Arctic and Subarctic environments.
Arctic System Science Program
Synthesis of Arctic System Science
|National Science Foundation||Understanding Change|
Central Greenland Sea
Grand Banks, Newfoundland
North Atlantic Ocean
|Synthesis of Modes of Ocean-Ice-Atmosphere Covariability in the Arctic System from Multivariate Century-Scale Observations|
Mark Serreze (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The project is an integrated statistical analysis of a comprehensive set of long time series from the Arctic and subpolar North Atlantic. These multivariate records include meteorological and oceanographic measurements, sea ice observations and climate indices. The project data set will comprise: a subset of the multidecadal to century-scale 'Unaami' Data Collection, and a set of relatively unknown, century-scale time series from the subpolar North Atlantic (Nordic Seas, Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and Norway) and Arctic that is new to the US community. These data will be organized and analyzed using a comprehensive set of advanced time-frequency statistical methods including organized temporal and spatial patterns of variability and covariability in the ocean-ice-atmosphere system over the past 50-200 years. The work will focus on modes other than the Arctic / North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO), including the multidecadal low-frequency oscillation. To further understanding of the mechanisms, the synthesis will use new output from multi-century model runs from the first coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) with independent stretched-coordinate systems for the atmosphere and ocean that have been resolution-optimized for the Arctic and subpolar North Atlantic.
|Synthesis of Arctic System Science||National Science Foundation||Understanding Change|
Climatology / Meteorology
North Atlantic Ocean