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1) What is the difference between sea ice and pack ice?
Sea ice is a general term used for to describe any type of ice in
the sea. The pack ice is a term referring to the found around the
arctic polar region, that floats on top of the arctic ocean.
2) Does pack ice support marine life like sea ice does?
Yes they both support the plant life that is the bottom of the food.
3) What is the oldest ice sample you have found?
Glacier ice is thousands of years old, oldest pack ice in only 10
years old at most.
4) Where are you from? What is your educational background?
Hajo is from Germany and has a Phd in geophysics. Andy is from England
and is currently working on his Phd.
5) Do you work alone or with a crew?
It is safest to work in groups of 2 or larger.
6) Who supports your research? (Government, school, individuals?)
We are funded mostly through grants provided by a federal agency
called the National Science Foundation.
7) Why are there dark and light rings in the ice core samples?
The ice is formed at different temperatures and sometimes with different
amounts of sediment or plant material in them.
8) How thick are the rings/layers in the ice, and what does that
The thickness depends on the temperatures and conditions under which
the ice grew.
9) How do you use chemistry in your work?
We use it to stain organisms or structures in the ice to make them
10)How did you get interested in ice core research? (covered in
11) What have you found in your research? (covered in another answer)
12) How much evidence of animal and plant life do you find in your
We find a lot of evidence at the bottom of the ice where the algae
13) Does albedo on sea ice differ from the albedo of fresh water
Yes, normally freshwater ice is darker and has a lower albedo while
sea ice is usually lighter and has a higher albedo.
14) Is albedo studied on sand deserts?
Yes, there are scientist studying albedo in many places.
15) How long have you been doing research on the arctic coast near
Barrow and what makes it a good area to do your research?
Hajo has been working here for four years and Andy has been working
for 2 years.
16) What kind of results have you obtained from your work and have
you observed any changes during that time?
We have seen some evidence of decreasing mass of the ice.
17)How did you become interested in ice research? (covered in another
18) What type of education is needed to do the kind of work that
you do? Where did you go to school?
A degree in physics, geology, atmospheric sciences or math.
19)Have you run into any polar bears while doing work there?
Andy has seen quite a few.
20) What is the hardest thing about doing work there and what is
The cold temperatures are the hardest, while getting here is the
21) What is the thickest ice that you have cored?
About 3 meters.
22)What are you wearing---are you warm enough? (covered in another
23) How do you set up an experiment to study ice and what kind of
equipment do you use? (not answered)
24) What kinds of classes should I take in high school if I want
to learn more understand more about ice research? (covered in another
25) What majors in college would help me get a job in your field
or a related field of work? (covered in another answer)
26) What is the most exciting thing that has ever happened to you
while working up there?
How long will you continue your work there? (covered in another
27) Do you do your research at the same time every year, if so why
have you picked that time of year to do it? (covered in another
28) Does it matter what time of the year you conduct your research?
(covered in another answer)